Social Accountability from the Trenches: 6 Critical Reflections

Originally published on the GPSA website
By Gopa Kumar Thampi, Director, Economic Governance – Sri Lanka, The Asia Foundation & GPSA Steering Committee 

There is a clearly a surge in social accountability initiatives across the globe today. From informal expressions at the grassroots to entrenched voices in corridors of power, the social accountability multiverse has become stronger and diverse. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that we are indeed witnessing the rise of an ‘audit society’ that animates the spectrum between confrontation and collaboration in citizen’s engagement with the state. The proliferation of toolkits and manuals embellishes this trend as social audits and scorecards have become commonplace parlance for civic activists, policy wonks and academics as they line up an impressive array of data to hold the state to account. However, viewed from the trenches of day-to-day encounters with social accountability, some notes of caution need to be flagged:

1) Primacy of technique over politics: ‘Bring politics back’ is an oft-quoted plea that is heard at the closure of every learning and sharing event on social accountability. Though some excellent conceptual writings exist on the rationale and approaches to acknowledge politics, there is clearly a knowledge gap on praxis. This gap becomes accentuated when projects finish their shelf lives and local interlocutors are left dealing with unplanned political aftermaths. What we need is not just the ‘why’ and ‘what’ of navigating politics, but the ‘how’ too. There is also the bias of working with executive ‘accelerators’ – reformist executives who push the frontiers of constructive engagement and deliver high quality impacts on pilot projects. But the reason why these ripples of change never result in a transformative wave is because politics is often viewed as a problem best avoided. We need to acknowledge that any change sans the inconvenience of politics is bound to be short lived. Working with politics and programming with sensitivity to political ecologies means more flexibility in design and implementation. This is where contemporary discourses on ‘Doing Development Differently’ are opening up new opportunities and pathways.

2) Tyranny of tools: Social Accountability tools like public hearings, scorecards, report cards and social audits have played a major role in bringing rigor to discourse and praxis, by moving the frame of reference from the anecdotal to the evidential. However, projects driven by the novelty of applying tools run the risk of not just undermining sustainable impacts, but paving the way for a far more serious erosion of trust and acceptance. Tools have a tendency to trade efficiency over inclusion, and participation over representation. There is also a case for ensuring quality. As an evolving field where theory consistently lags behind practice, it is critical that the field of practices is constantly reviewed, reflected upon and improved. Finally, there is the issue of local capacities. Applications of tools in rural areas often rely on external agents to play the role of interlocutors, but seldom do legacies and capacities get left behind for continued actions by local interlocutors.

3) Interrogating civil society: A dominant theme in the discourse and praxis of accountability is the emphasis placed on the role of civil society as the vanguard of change. There are genuine concerns that the sector is fast losing its rootedness and legitimacy –a schism grows between genuine informal social movements and formal organized civil society. One, exhibiting the vigor of confronting and embracing the politics of governance and the other, seen as obsessed with the rigor of getting the method right. We need to honestly interrogate our understanding of civil society organizations and widen our focus to bring in new, unseen but genuine champions from the cutting edges. A considerable proportion of existing civil society proponents of accountability often tend to be urban centered, and speak a language that appeal to our funding imperatives. We need to empower and enrich the language that has the credibility and endorsement of the basic constituency that we seek to address – citizens, especially the disadvantaged.

4) Seduction of contestation: Rights-based social mobilization sometimes leads to an unintended consequence – spiraling expectations. When amplified voice encounters weak responses from the state, ‘rude accountability’ manifests. The grammar of engagement changes swiftly to a confrontational mode. In social contexts where power asymmetries are accentuated, these confrontations can take very violent forms. There is a case for calibrating social accountability initiatives to match state capacity. In contexts marked by a trust deficit between state and citizens, it may be prudent to focus on trust building exercises as a starting point. The other issue is of public dissemination. Should one go for a big bang release of the findings from a social audit, thereby securing a guaranteed news coverage? Or, should the state be allowed to frame its responses and then go public with the findings and responses? To strengthen principles of constructive engagement, closing the feedback loop in the public domain becomes a critical factor. Voice needs an ear to respond.

5) Rethinking evaluation: It is near impossible to engineer transformative changes given the short project cycles of social accountability initiatives . End of project evaluations can seldom provide meaningful insights. What the field of social accountability needs are longitudinal studies that explore questions related to sustainability and uptake of reported successes. In particular, five aspects could be emphasized: (a) Extent of multi stakeholder engagement; (b) Width of citizen involvement, especially aspects of inclusion; (c) Long-term partnership among stakeholders; (d) Legal or institutional recognition of civil society engagement; and (e) Extent to which processes generate compliance and provide deterrence. Rather than focus on narrowly defined outcomes, evaluations should dwell into process indicators that reveal if critical pathways and enablers are set in place.

6) Illiberalism and social polarization: Perhaps the greatest challenge for social accountability initiatives is the growing popularity of illiberal electoral democracies and, in parallel, the deep social polarization that is tearing up fragile social fabrics. Leaders with divisive agendas and populist outlooks, aided by manipulated (and at times, completely fake) news are posing a grave threat to democratic institutions. There is also the distinct disconnect between the informed public and the mass public in terms of their expressed trust in institutions. All these have substantive repercussions on the way we imagine and operationalize social accountability. We need to focus on activities that build bridging social capital – locating actions that result in enhanced inter-group collaboration. The role of traditional media – once the trusted ally and champion for accountability – needs to be evaluated given the ubiquitous spread of social media. Rather than lamenting the loss of old spaces, the strategy should be to appropriate the new ones.

To sign off: Social accountability is recognition that there exists a lack of engagement with the public institutions that are so critical to our daily lives, a lack of influence in decision-making and more importantly, a lack of voice for expressing our needs, concerns and demands. We believe that social accountability approaches enable citizens, especially the voiceless and the powerless, to engage with state institutions in a proactive and constructive way to demand and exact accountability and responsiveness. This moral high ground of the concept and praxis of social accountability needs to be protected and nurtured.

Events

GPSA Knowledge Platform – Upcoming Webinar

Evaluations, Learning and Keeping Calm: A conversation about resilience after an evaluation – AUGUST 15 10 – 11h30am EDT
With Semkae Kilonzo and Florencia Guerzovich

The monitoring, evaluation and learning environment for social accountability seems to be changing. There is a lot of discussion about the value of experimentation, failure, and course-correction. Many funders and practitioners, however, continue to manage their projects with systems that do not support adaptation.
In this webinar we will have a conversation about Policy Forum’s experience navigating “both worlds.” Speakers will share about a high-stakes evaluation that was disappointing to the implementer. They will then talk about how Policy Forum and its partners are rethinking its approach to learning, based on this experience. The webinar will be an opportunity to discuss what it takes to become a “learning organization”, identify challenges, and share some tricks of the trade.

Join the Webinar

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PSAM – Fundamentals of Social Accountability Monitoring 2017

PSAM offers the Fundamentals of Social Accountability Monitoring course (a Rhodes University accredited course) three times a year. This course provides an introduction to a rights-based approach to social accountability and an integrated systemic approach to evidence-based social accountability monitoring of public resource management frameworks. It is suited for civil society decision-makers, trainers on social accountability monitoring and advocacy, government oversight bodies, media practitioners, and academics. The 2016 course dates are as follows:

29 May – 9 June 2017. Application closing date: 13 April 2017
25 Sept – 6 Oct 2017. Application closing date: 11 August 2017
13 – 24 Nov 2017. Application closing date: 29 Sept 2017

For information on how to apply and costs, contact us at psam.training@ru.ac.za

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World Vision-PSAM Conference – “How does context affect social accountability outcomes?”

Pan African Social Accountability Learning Lab

Ezulwini, Swaziland,  17-21 October, 2016

How does context affect social accountability/civic engagement outcomes within and between countries? Why do certain social accountability (SA) interventions easily gain traction and demonstrate results in some settings and not in some others?

The proposed October 2016 learning event will attract participants (practitioners, researchers and donors) from over 15 countries within and outside Africa to honestly and collectively wrestle with some of the above questions and several others. The event will be co-organized by WV and the PSAM. WV Swaziland (WVS) has graciously accepted to host the learning lab.

Participants will learn about what SA interventions work and not work; where, by who, for who and under what conditions/circumstances.

Learning lab delegates will have the opportunity to seriously interrogate their own SA approaches and those of others in the pursuit of enhanced, robust and context-calibrated SA initiatives.

The 5-day event will be ideal for networking: creating new and/or consolidating existing relationships in order to promote peer-to-peer learning, mentoring and ongoing support.

To indicate your interest in attending the event or if you have any questions regarding the event, please email Moses_Ngulube@wvi.org or v.malila@ru.ac.za

A call for papers and further details will be distributed in April 2016.

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PSAM – Fundamentals of Social Accountability Monitoring

PSAM offers the Fundamentals of Social Accountability Monitoring course (a Rhodes University accredited course) three times a year. This course provides an introduction to a rights-based approach to social accountability and an integrated systemic approach to evidence-based social accountability monitoring of public resource management frameworks. It is suited for civil society decision-makers, trainers on social accountability monitoring and advocacy, government oversight bodies, media practitioners, and academics. The 2016 course dates are as follows:

7 – 18 March 2016. Application closing date: 29 January 2016

30 May – 10 June 2016. Application closing date: 22 April 2016

3 – 14 October 2016. Application closing date: 26 August 2016

For information on how to apply and costs, contact us at psam.training@ru.ac.za